Sambucus nigra Linnaeus 1753 (Family Caprifoliaceae)


Tree

Bark

Leaf

Flowers

Fruit

Height: <10 m, Age: <100 yr
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal
Persistent Seed Bank
Hermaphrodite, Flowering June - July (Earliest: 12.5)

Protective Chemicals
Alkaloids Sambucine
Cyanogenic Glycosides Hydrocyanic Acid, Sambunigrin
Terpenoids Saponins
Flavonoids Avicularin, Cyanidin, Isoquercitrin, Isorhamnetin, Kaempferol,
Naringenin, Quercetin, Rutin, Sambucin
Other Phenolics Caffeic, Caffeoylquinic, Chlorogenic, Coumaric, Ferulic, Gallic,
Hydroxybenzoic, Protocatechuic, Syringic, & Tartaric Acids, Cyanidin
Other Acids Acetic, Linoleic, Linolenic, Malic, Valeric

Biotopes:
Hedge Rows
Flower Visitors:
Bombus lucorum

Bombus terrestris

Anthophila fabriciana

Several Syrphidae

Phaonia incana

Thricops nigrifrons

Hydrophoria lancifer

Scathophaga stercoraria

Athous subfuscus

Cantharis rufa

Panorpa vulgaris
Parasites:
Sambucus Vein Clearing rhabdovirus

Erysiphe lonicerae

Erysiphe vanbruntiana

Pseudocercospora depazeoides

Phyllosticta sambucicola

Inonotus cuticularis

Liriomyza amoena

Contarinia sambuci Larva

Epitrimerus trilobus (Leaf Gall)
Possible Parasites:
Botanophila fugax Larva
(Stem Borer)
Herbivores:
Anania coronata

Udea prunalis Larva

Melanchra persicariae Larva

Scoliopteryx libatrix

Ourapteryx sambucaria

Choristoneura hebenstreitella

Saturnia pavonia

Several Tenthredinidae

Phyllobius oblongus

Helicidae
Sapivores:
Graphosoma lineatum

Lygocoris pabulinus

Philaenus spumarius

Aphis sambuci

Pulvinaria hydrangeae
Florivores:
Eupithecia tripunctaria

Protaetia cuprea
Frugivores:
Apodemus sylvaticus

Columba palumbus

Prunella modularis
Nests:
Streptopelia turtur

Several Crabronidae

Ancistrocerus parietinus

Ancistrocerus nigricornis
Wood Decomposers:
Xylodon sambuci

Angiosperm Generalists

Ecological Flora of the British Isles
Skye Flora: Elder


Pictures © 2003, 2004, 2005 J.K. Lindsey

Caution

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