Picea abies [excelsa] (Linnaeus 1753) Karsten 1881 (Family Pinaceae)


Trees

Bark

Leaves

Male Flowers

Female Flower

Fruit

Height: <45m, Age: <300 yr
Ectomycorrhizal
Monoecious, Flowering May - June (Earliest: 22.4)

Protective Chemicals
Monoterpenoids Camphene, Carene, Cymene, Phellandrene, Pinene,
Terpinene, Terpinolene
Sesquiterpenoids Cadinene
Diterpenoids Paclitaxel
Flavonoids Isorhamnetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Quercetin
Other Phenolics Coumaric & Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Astringin, Catechol,
Hydroxyacetophenone, Isorhapontin, Resveratrol, Tannins
Phytoestrogens Hydroxymatairesinol
Lignans Hydroxymatairesinol
Other Acids Abietic, Dehydroabietic, Neoabietic, Palustric, Pimaric

Biotopes:
Spruce Forest

Peat Bogs and Mires

Hedge Rows
Pollination: Wind
Mycorrhizae:
Hydnaceae

Cantharellaceae

Phallus impudicus

Thelephora terrestris

Many Russulaceae

Many Boletaceae

Paxillus involutus

Gomphidius glutinosus

Scleroderma citrinum

Several Amanitaceae

Many Cortinariaceae

Several Hygrophoraceae

Several Hymenogastraceae

Many Inocybaceae

Many Tricholomataceae

Laccaria bicolor

Laccaria laccata

Clitopilus prunulus

Entocybe turbida

Entoloma vernum
Parasites:
Chrysomyxa abietis

Phellinus chrysoloma

Pucciniastrum areolatum

Several Fomitopsidaceae

Heterobasidion annosum

Sparassis crispa

Armillaria ostoyae

Pholiota squarrosa

Gilletteella cooleyi Gall

Sacchiphantes abietis Gall

Dichelia histrionana Larva (Needle Miner)
Herbivores:
Many Geometridae

Many Tortricidae

Sphinx pinastri

Lymantria monacha Larva

Dioryctria abietella Larva

Chionodes electella Larva

Cephalcia abietis Larva

Cephalcia arvensis Larva

Gilpinia polytoma Larva

Pristiphora abietina Larva

Pristiphora compressa Larva

Several Curculionidae
Sapivores:
Several Cicadellidae

Atractotomus magnicornis

Phytocoris pini

Aphrophora corticea

Cinara piceicola

Prociphilus pini
Xylophages:
Cervus elaphus

Several Cerambycidae Larvae (Wood Borers)

Several Curculionidae
(Wood Borers)

Anthaxia quadripunctata Larva (Wood Borer)

Microbregma emarginatum Larva
Granivores:
Sciurus vulgaris

Several Muridae

Dendrocopos major

Parus ater

Parus cristatus

Sitta europaea

Certhia familiaris

Most Fringillidae

Cydia strobilella Larva

Ernobius abietis Larva

Gastrodes abietum

Gastrodes grossipes
Feeding Signs:
Sciurus vulgaris

Apodemus sylvaticus

Loxia curvirostra
Lichens and Fungi:
Several Parmeliaceae

Lecanora conizaeoides

Chrysothrix candelaris

Lepraria incana

Physcia adscendens

Ochrolechia microstictoides

Mycena laevigata
Mosses:
Orthotrichum lyellii

Ulota crispa

Dicranoweisia cirrata
Inhabitants:
Anatis ocellata
Nests:
Several Accipitridae

Columba palumbus
Asio otus
Sylvia curruca

Regulidae

Certhiidae

Laniidae

Nucifraga caryocatactes

Carduelis spinus

Loxia curvirostra
Wood Decomposers:
Many Mycenaceae

Several Strophariaceae

Armillaria ostoyae

Oudemansiella melanotricha

Pluteus pouzarianus

Pluteus roseipes

Psathyrella caput-medusae

Psathyrella pertinax

Tricholomopsis decora

Tricholomopsis rutilans

Pleurocybella porrigens

Gymnopilus sapineus

Mucronella bresadolae

Heterobasidion annosum

Amylostereum areolatum

Stereum sanguinolentum

Gloiothele citrina

Tapinella atrotomentosa

Several Auriculariaceae

Several Dacrymycetaceae

Most Gloeophyllaceae

Several Hymenochaetaceae

Veluticeps abietina

Pseudohydnum gelatinosum

Tremella encephala

Sebacina grisea

Tylospora fibrillosa

Amylocorticiellum molle

Many Fomitopsidaceae

Several Polyporaceae

Coniophora olivacea

Pezicula livida

Leocarpus fragilis

Several Cerambycidae Larvae

Several Curculionidae

Xylosciara lignicola Larva

Gymnosperm Generalists
Needle Decomposers:
Many Mycenaceae

Several Tricholomataceae

Gymnopus perforans

Tephrocybe confusa

Psathyrella pertinax

Leucocybe candicans

Tylospora fibrillosa

Gymnosperm Generalists
Cone Decomposers:
Strobilurus esculentus

Mycena strobilicola

Baeospora myosura

Phomopsis velata

Phaeohelotium umbilicatum

Clinodiplosis cilicrus Larva

Gymnosperm Generalists


Pictures © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2011 J.K. Lindsey

Caution

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