Ilex aquifolium Linnaeus 1753 (Family Aquifoliaceae)


Bush

Bark

Leaf

Flower

Fruit

Height: <10 m, Age: <300 yr
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal
Persistent Seed Bank
Dioecious, Flowering May - June (Earliest: 2.5)

Protective Chemicals
Methylxanthine Alkaloids Theobromine
Nitrile Glycosides Menisdaurin
Saponins Ursolic Acid, Amyrin
Other Triterpenoids Squalene
Flavonoids Quercetin
Other Phenolics Hydroxybenzoic, Phenylacetic &
Vanillic Acids, Tannins
Other Acids Arachidic, Linoleic, Linolenic, Oleic,
Palmitic, Pentadecanoic, Stearic
Sterols Ergosterol, Sitosterol

Biotopes:
Hedge Rows
Flower Visitors:
Bombus pascuorum
Parasites:
Coniothyrium ilicis

Phytophthora ilicis

Phytomyza ilicis
Herbivores:
Celastrina argiolus Larva

Cosmia trapezina Larva

Rhopobota naevana Larva
Florivores:
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata Larva
Frugivores:
Columba palumbus
Wood Decomposers:
Diaporthe ilicis

Angiosperm Generalists
Leaf Decomposers:
Phyllosticta philoprina

Phacidium lauri

Angiosperm Generalists

Ecological Flora of the British Isles
Skye Flora: Holly


Pictures © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 J.K. Lindsey

Caution

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