Betula pendula [verrucosa] Roth 1788 (Family Betulaceae)


Tree

Bark

Leaf

Male Flowers

Female Flowers

Fruit

Height: <30 m, Age: <100 yr
Ectomycorrhizal
Persistent Seed Bank
Monoecious, Flowering April - May (Earliest: 4.4)

Protective Chemicals
Monoterpenoids Alloocimene, Cineole, Limonene, Linalool, Myrcene, Ocimene, Pinene,
Sabinene, Terpinene, Thujene
Sesquiterpenoids Amorphene, Bourbonene, Cadinene, Caryophyllene, Copaene, Farnesene,
Guaiadiene, Humulene
Triterpenoids Betulinic, Deacetylpapyriferic, Papyriferic, & Pendulic Acids, Betulin
Flavonoids Catechin, Hyperoside, Myricetin, Quercetin
Other
Phenolics
Chlorogenic, Cinnamic, & Neochlorogenic Acids, Betuloside,
Dehydrosalidroside, Epirhododendrin, Platyphylloside, Salidroside, Tannins

Biotopes:
Wet Forest

Hedge Rows
Pollination: Wind
Seed Dispersal: Wind
Mycorrhizae:
Thelephora terrestris

Cantharellus cibarius

Many Boletaceae

Paxillus involutus

Scleroderma citrinum

Many Russulaceae

Several Amanitaceae

Many Cortinariaceae

Several Entolomataceae

Several Hymenogastraceae

Many Inocybaceae

Several Tricholomataceae

Laccaria amethystina

Laccaria proxima

Hygrophorus hedrychii
Parasites:
Taphrina betulae

Taphrina betulina

Marssonina betulae

Erysiphe ornata

Inonotus obliquus

Phellinus igniarius

Several Polyporaceae

Fomitopsis pinicola

Chondrostereum purpureum

Armillaria ostoyae

Incurvaria pectinea

Coleophora serratella

Lyonetia clerkella

Epinotia tetraquetrana Larva
(Stem Borer)

Lampronia fuscatella Larva
(Twig Gall)

Stigmella betulicola

Parornix betulae

Scolioneura betuleti

Agromyza alnibetulae

Anisostephus betulinus

Several Curculionidae Larvae
(Leaf Miners)

Trachys minutus

Acalitus longisetosus
Possible Parasites:
Coleophora currucipennella Larva

Coleophora potentillae

Bucculatrix thoracella

Saperda populnea Larva
(Branch Gall)
Herbivores:
Capreolus capreolus
Bonasa bonasia
Nymphalis polychloros Larva

Several Drepanidae

Several Erebidae

Many Geometridae

Many Noctuidae

Several Notodontidae Larvae

Many Tortricidae

Macrothylacia rubi

Poecilocampa populi

Anacampsis blattariella Larva

Hypatima rhomboidella Larva

Saturnia pavonia

Endromis versicolora Larva

Pseudoips prasinana Larva

Ypsolopha parenthesella Larva

Semioscopi avellanella Larva

Several Tenthredinidae

Arge ustulata Larva

Trichiosoma lucorum

Several Chrysomelidae

Several Curculionidae

Several Rhynchitidae

Agrilus cyanescens

Phyllopertha horticola
Possible Herbivores:
Many Geometridae

Many Noctuidae

Several Notodontidae

Several Tortricidae

Lymantria monacha Larva

Parasemia plantaginis

Aglia tau Larva

Diurnea fagella

Carpatolechia proximella Larva

Cossus cossus

Notodonta torva Larva

Several Tenthredinidae

Several Chrysomelidae

Many Curculionidae
Sapivores:
Several Aphididae

Several Cicadellidae

Cixiidae

Psallus betuleti

Psallus perrisi

Psylla betulae
Possible Sapivores:
Several Miridae

Several Pentatomidae

Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale
Xylophages:
Synanthedon spheciformis Larva (Wood Borer)

Several Cerambycidae Larvae

Schizotus pectinicornis Larva (Wood Borer)

Otiorhynchus coecus Larva
Florivores:
Argyresthia brockeella

Argyresthia goedartella Larva

Eupithecia satyrata

Epinotia ramella Larva
Possible Florivores:
Neolygus contaminatus
Granivores:
Parus caeruleus

Carduelis flammea

Carduelis spinus

Coccothraustes coccothraustes

Cochylis nana Larva

Kleidocerys resedae

Orthotylus marginalis
Possible Granivores:
Several Miridae

Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale Nymph
Lichens:
Candelaria concolor

Pertusaria flavida

Evernia prunastri

Parmelia saxatilis

Physcia tenella

Lecanora expallens

Phlyctis argena

Cladonia coniocraea
Nests:
Columba palumbus
Wood Decomposers:
Psathyrella artemisiae

Homophron spadiceum

Armillaria ostoyae

Simocybe sumptuosa

Megacollybia platyphylla

Mycena rubromarginata

Mycenella margaritispora

Pleurotus pulmonarius

Chondrostereum purpureum

Radulomyces confluens

Phellinus igniarius

Phellinus lundellii

Hyphodontia barba-jovis

Several Polyporaceae

Fomitopsis betulina

Gloeoporus pannocinctus

Bulgaria inquinans

Mollisia ramealis

Hypoxylon fuscum

Trichius fasciatus Larva

Magdalis carbonaria Larva

Ampedus pomonae Larva

Criorhina berberina Larva

Eratophyes amasiella Larva

Angiosperm Generalists
Leaf Decomposers:
Myochromella boudieri

Psathyrella artemisiae

Calycellina leucella

Polyscytalum fecundissimum

Fusidium griseum

Adela reaumurella Larva

Nemophora degeerella Larva

Angiosperm Generalists

Ecological Flora of the British Isles
Skye Flora: Silver Birch
Tommi Nyman: Insects on Birch


Pictures © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2011 J.K. Lindsey

Caution

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