Parmeliaceae
Descriptions and Identification Keys

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Acharius, E. (1803) Methodus qua omnes detectos Lichenes. Sectio prior. Stockholmiae: F.D.D. Ulrich.
Acharius, E. (1810) Lichenographia universalis. Gottingae: A.I.F. Danckwerts.
Arup, U. & Berlin, E.S.(2011) "A taxonomic study of Melanelixia fuliginosa in Europe." Lichenologist 43: 89-97.
Blanco, O., Crespo, A., Divakar, P.K., Esslinger, T.L., Hawksworth, D.L., & Lumbsch, H.T. (2004) "Melanelixia and Melanohalea, two new genera segregated from Melanelia (Parmeliaceae) based on molecular and morphological data." Mycological Research 108(8): 873-884.
Boistel, A. (1986) Nouvelle Flore des Lichens. Paris: Belin.
Culberson, W.L. & Culberson, C.F. (1968) "The lichen genera Cetrelia and Platismatia (Parmeliaceae)." Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. 34: 449-538.
de Necker, N.M.J. (1768) Deliciae Gallo-belgicae silvestres. Tomus Secundus. Argentorati: J. Lorenzii.
Dobson, F.S. (2005) Lichens. An Illustrated Guide to the British and Irish Species. Slough: Richmond Publishing.
Esslinger, T.L. (1978) "A new status for brown Parmeliae." Mycotaxon 7: 45-54.
Hale, M.E. (1974) "Bulbothrix, Parmelina, Relicina, and Xanthoparmelia, four new genera in the Parmeliaceae (Lichenes)." Phytologia 28: 479-490.
Hale, M.E. (1979) How to Know the Lichens. Dubuque: W.C. Brown.
Havaas, J.J. (1920) "Lichenvegetationen ved Mosterhavn." Bergens Museums Aarbok 1917-1918. 2: 1-39.
Hoffmann, G.F. (1784) Enumeratio Lichenum Iconibus et Descriptionibus illustrata. Erlangae: W. Waltheri.
Jacquin, N.J. (1790) Collectanea ad Botanicam, Chemiam, et Historiam Naturalem spectantia. Vol, I-IV. Vindobonae: Wapplleriana.
Jahns, H.M. (1980) Farne, Moose, Flechten Mittel-, Nord-, und Westeuropas München: BLV Verlagsgesellschaft.
   Traduction française, (1989) Guide des Fougères, Mousses et Lichens d'Europe. Lausanne: Delachaux et Niestlé.
Kershaw, K.A. & Alvin, K.L. (1963) The Observer's Book of Lichens. London: Frederick Warne.
Kirschbaum, U. & Wirth, V. (1995, 2nd edn) Flechten erkennen - Luftgüte bestimmen. Paris: Eugen Ulmer.
   Traduction française, (1997) Les Lichens bio-indicateurs. Paris: Eugen Ulmer.
Lamy, P.M.É. (1883) "Exposition systématique des lichens de Cauterets, de Lourdes et de leurs environs." Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 30: 333-465.
Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species Plantarum. Tomus II. Holmiae: L. Salvii.
Lumbsch, H.T., Kothe, H.W., & Elix, J.A. (1988) "Resurrection of the lichen genus Pleurosticta Petrak (Parmeliaceae: Ascomycotina)." Mycotaxon 33: 447-455.
Mackay, J.T. (1836) Flora Hibernica comprising the Flowering Plants Ferns Characeae Musci Hepaticae Lichenes and Algae of Ireland. Dublin: W.C. Jun.
Mattsson, J.E. & Lai, M.J. (1993) "Vulpicida, a new genus in Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycetes)." Mycotaxon 46: 425-428.
Nylander, W. (1863) Synopsis methodica lichenum. Tomus secundus. Parisiis: L. Martinet..
Nylander, W. (1873) "Addenda nova ad Lichenographiam europaeam." Flora oder allgemeine Botanische Zeitung 56: 17-23, 289-300.
Nylander, W. (1896) Les Lichens des Environs de Paris. Paris: P. Schmidt.
Olivier, H. (1894) "Étude sur les principaux Parmelia, Parmeliopsis, Physcia et Xanthoria de la flore française." Revue de Botanique 12: 51-99.
Schaerer, L.E. (1840) Lichenum Helveticorum Spicilegium. Pars Secunda. Sectio Decima. Bernae: Halleriana.
Scopoli, J.A. (1772, 2nd edn) Flora Carniolica. Tom. II. Vindobona: J.P. Krauss.
Sérusiaux, E., Diederich, P. & Lambinon, J. (2004) Les Macrolichens de Belgique, du Luxembourg, et du Nord de la France. Luxembourg: Ferrantia 40. Travaux scientifiques du Musée national d'Histoire naturelle.
Smith, A.L. (1921) A Handbook of the British Lichens. London: British Museum.
Smith, C.W., Aptroot, A., Coppins, B.J., Fletcher, A., Gilbert, O.L., James, P.W., & Wolseley, P.A. (eds, 2009, 2nd edn) The Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Natural History Museum Publications.
Stirton, J. (1882) "Notes on the genus Usnea, with descriptions of new species." Scottish Naturalist 6: 292-297.
Tiévant, P. (2001) Guide des Lichens. Lausanne: Delachaux et Niestlé.
Van Haluwyn, C. & Asta, J. (2009) Guide des Lichens de France. Paris: Belin.
Zahlbruckner, A. (1894) "Zur Flechtenflora des Pressburger Komitates." Verhandlungen des Vereins für Natur-und Heilkunde zu Presburg 8: 19-73.
Zopf, W. (1903) "Vergleichende Untersuchungen über Flechten in Bezug auf ihre Stoffwechselprodukte." Beihefte zum botanischen Centralblatt 14: 95-126.


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